Monday, September 22, 2014

Thirteen Security Operations Later And Iraq’s Northern Babil Is No Less Safe

 
As soon as fighting broke out in Anbar at the very end of December 2013 so did violence pick up in nearby Babil. The northern section of the province has been an insurgent base for years with parts of it dubbed the Triangle of Death by the American forces when they were in the country. Today it remains a stronghold of the Islamic State. The Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) has tried to clear the area for months now with little to no effect. The trend has been for the government to announce success for an operation, and then to launch another one within days. Babil highlights the on going futility of much of the government’s security plans. 

Northern Babil has seen an increase in Islamic State operations since the start of the year (BBC)
The Iraqi Security Forces have responded with repeated operations in Jurf al-Sakhr, Musayib and Latifiya (IraqSlogger)

Babil has been a top priority of the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) for quite some time. Just as the fighting broke out in Anbar in December so did it in Babil. On December 31, 2013 for instance, insurgents blew up 10 houses in Jurf al-Sakhr in the northwest section of the province leading to 84 families fleeing. The Islamic State was responsible as it is the major group in the area and its forces there are directly linked to those in Anbar with men and material moving back and forth to Amiriya Fallujah. It is also a gateway into southern Baghdad province and a likely source for car bombs into the capital. The militants have an extensive network in Jurf al-Sakhr that includes a tunnel system. Nothing much more was heard from the governorate until the end of March when people demonstrated against the deteriorating security situation there. Things got worse in early April when the ISF ended up withdrawing from Jurf al-Sakhr due to attacks. As a result, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki sacked the head of the Babil Operations Command General Salah al-Maliki and replaced him with Abdul Aziz Dhalimi who was stationed in Basra. That led to a new security operation to clear Jurf al-Sakhr, and then another five days later focusing upon Sindeej, Abid and Fadhiliya. The Babil provincial council complained that the army did not have enough heavy equipment to be successful and warned of the difficult environment. The Defense Ministry also announced that it was forming a special committee to deal with security in northern Babil. May 11 the Babil police said that it was working from Jurf al-Sakhr north to Musayib, but warned that there were still areas under insurgent control. The next day the police claimed they were successful in clearing the region. Three days later the police were back in Jurf al-Sakhr trying to block insurgents from moving in from neighboring Anbar. The Army air arm was deployed as well using Russian helicopters. May 16 the army said its air strikes were going to be expanded to around Iskandiriya, which is to the east of Jurf al-Sakhr. May 18 the Babil Police Chief General Riyad Abdul Amir al-Khikani said that most of Jurf al-Sakhr was now insurgent free. The costs were high as the Iraqi Red Crescent counted more than 800 families becoming displaced as a result of the fighting. By the end of the month the ISF was back to work in the area fighting in Fadhiliya, Bani Wais and Al Bhbhan. Despite the claims of the security forces the Islamic State appeared to still hold the upper hand. In May for example, it posted pictures on line of it using cranes and bulldozers to take down security outposts and a huge convoy of Humvees that it destroyed in Jurf al-Sakhr. Of course that led to the 6th security campaign that started on June 18, which including 1,500 new volunteers who joined the ISF after the start of the militant’s summer offensive. June 25 the head of the Babil security committee told the press that 70% of Jurf al-Sakhr had been cleared, but that the ISF were not done yet. At the same time, the army was working to rid Latifiya of insurgents to the northeast of Jurf al-Sakhr. Despite these statements Maliki replaced the head of the Babil Operations Command once again on July 1, showing that the premier was not happy with the alleged progress in the province. That didn’t stop the spokesman for Maliki’s Commander and Chief’s office to say that much of Jurf al-Sakhr had been secured on July 3. Like usual, three days later the Defense Ministry sent a tank battalion to the area. The Babil governor must not have gotten the word as he denied that Jurf al-Sakhr was under insurgent control. He didn’t prove credible either as he announced a new security campaign the next day, which include the new SU-25 attack fighters that Iraq received, and the help of the Baghdad Operations Command. By July 11 the Babil council told the press that two parts of the region were cleared and that two militias, Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas and Asaib Ahl al-Haq, were supporting the ISF. Later, 500 more volunteers were sent to Jurf al-Sakhr, and the Hezbollah Brigades were working there as well. Latifiya was again included in this campaign, and was said to have been secured on July 17, and Jurf al-Sakhr on July 23. As usual the security forces left and IS moved right back in, and by July 27 there was fighting again in Latifiya and Yusifiya. The next day the eighth operation was begun, this time including the elite Golden Division to clear the road from Jurf al-Sakhr to Musayib to the south, while another was started in Latifiya. Only three days passed before the Babil Operations Command said Jurf al-Sakhr was safe again, with another sweep starting on August 1. The ISF were doing so good that Maliki decided to get rid of the head of the Babil Operations Command once again on August 4. The new commander General Abdul Hussein Mahmoud told the press on August 17 that Jurf al-Sakhr was fully under control of the security forces. That was contradicted the next day when the army said it made a tactical withdrawal from Fadhiliya. Another ISF and militia offensive was started there and in Yusifiya, which ended on September 5 with another claim of victory. The twelfth campaign was begun on September 13 in Jurf al-Sakhr this time including the Baghdad and Anbar Operations Command pushing in from Amiriya Fallujah in Anbar to the west and the Babil Operations Command coming from the south starting in Musayib. The U.S. Air Force even hit Yusifiya on September 16 in support of the operation. Like clockwork another sweep by the ISF was started on September 20, which will likely be followed by another and another. The deployment of the army, the police, the elite Golden Division, militias, Russian attack helicopters, SU-25s, and American air strikes have all failed to secure northern Babil. The problem is that the ISF raids an area, and then leaves allowing the militants to move right back in. Some areas have such a strong IS presence that the army and police have not only been denied access, but they have actively avoided them for months despite all the sweeps. A similar pattern has happened in Anbar since January, and more recently in Diyala as well showing the futility of the government’s plans to secure the country.
Iraqi Army mortar teams operating in Jurf al-Sakhr Aug 2014 (AFP)
The ISF has been supported by various militias in northern Babil (AFP)
Despite 13 security operations the Islamic State continues to openly operate in northern Babil as in this picture of it using a crane to dismantle a security outpost in Jurf al-Sakhr in May 2014
September IS still able to take apart security stations in Jurf al-Sakhr

Timeline Of Security Operations In Northern Babil 2014

Jan. 6 Army starts 1st security operation launched in Jurf al-Sakhr

Early Apr Army withdrew from Jurf al-Sakhr

Apr 15 PM Maliki sacks head of Babil Operations Command and new security operation launched

Apr 20 3rd security operation launched

May 7 Defense Ministry formed special committee for security in northern Babil

May 11 Babil police start 4th operation from Jurf al-Sakhr to Musayib

May 12 Babil police claim success in operation

May 15 Babil police begin to clear Jurf al-Sakhr

May 18 Babil police chief claimed operations had cleared most of Jurf al-Sakhr

End of May 5th operation started in Jurf al-Sakhr

Jun 18 6th security campaign in Jurf al-Sakhr including 1,500 new volunteers

Jun 26 Army said it cleared Latifiya

Jul 1 PM Maliki replaces head of Babil Operations Command

Jul 3 Commander and Chief spokesman Gen Atta claims several areas of Jurf al-Sakhr secure

Jul 6 Defense Ministry sends a tank battalion to Jurf al-Sakhr

Jul 7 Babil Governor said that insurgents were not in control of Jurf al-Sakhr

Jul 8 Babil Governor announces 7th security campaign in northern section of province

Jul 11 Babil council said that two parts of Jurf al-Sakhr had been cleared with participation of militias, Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas and Asaib Ahl Al-Haq

Jul 12 500 more volunteers sent to Jurf al-Sakhr

Jul 13 Hezbollah Brigades reported operating in Jurf al-Sakhr

Jul 17 Latifiya said to be cleared

Jul 23 ISF said that northern Babil was cleared

Jul 28 8th operation launched to clear road from Jurf al-Sakhr to Musayib

Jul 29 9th operation begun to secure Latifiya

Jul 31 Babil Operations Command claimed Jurf al-Sakhr was safe

Aug 1 10th security sweep started in Jurf al-Sakhr

Aug 4 Head of Babil Operations Command replaced again

Aug 17 Head of Babil Operations Command said Jurf al-Sakhr was fully under control of security forces

Aug 18 Army withdrew from Fadhiliya within Jurf al-Sakhr

Sep 9 Militias and ISF said Fadhiliya and Yusifiya secured

Sep 13 12th operation started in Jurf al-Sakhr

Sep 16 U.S. air strike on Yusifiya in support of operation

Sep 20 13th sweet begun in Jurf al-Sakhr

The fighting in Babil highlights the lack of strategy on the part of Baghdad. It has no plans for how to clear and hold an area in the province. Instead the ISF is repeating the exact same mistakes the Americans made in Iraq before the 2007 Surge, which is to raid and leave. The Islamic State on the other hand remains as strong as ever. Its hold upon Jurf al-Sakhr is unshaken along with its route into eastern Anbar. Not only that, but it is just as strong in Musayib and Latifiya allowing it to attack areas like Mahmudiya to the north, Madain to the east and the southern reaches of the capital. While much of the focus is upon security in places like Ninewa and Salahaddin, Babil is just as important. The Islamic State is expanding its influence in the province and allowing it to advance towards the capital, and the government forces have proven incapable of stopping it.

SOURCES

Abdul-Zahra, Qassim and Yacoub, Sameer, “Iraq launches push for militant-held northern city,” Associated Press, 6/28/14

AIN, “35 ISIL elements killed, 3 ISIL shelters destroyed northern Babel,” 6/21/14
- “Babel Operations Commander replaced,” 8/4/14
- “IA forces attack ISIL elements in northern Babel,” 5/6/14
- “Maliki replaces Babel Operations Commander assigns new Intelligent Commander,” 4/15/14
- “MoD announces liberating many areas of Jurf al-Sakhar district northern Babel,” 7/21/14
- “Several areas of Jurf al-Sakhar district freed from ISIL terrorists, says Atta,” 7/3/14

Ali, Ahmed, “Anbaris Weigh Negotiations with Maliki,” Institute for the Study of War, 1/6/14

Alsumaria, “Launching a military operation in Latifiyah and killed a number of Daash elements,” 7/29/14
- “Source: tactical withdrawal of army troops from the north of Babylon Fadiliyah,” 8/18/14

Buratha News, “Al Bhan and Arab in Jurf al-Sakhar cleared of Daash rats,” 7/11/14
- “Commander of operations near Babylon announce resolution of battle in Jurf al-Sakhr,” 5/23/14
- “Governor of Babylon: purge 70% of areas north of Babylon, and access to the edge of Amiriyat Fallujah,” 6/25/14
- “The killing of 20 embers of Daash in security operation in Jurf al-Sakhr,” 7/8/14
- “The killing of Mufti of Jurf al-Sakhr Musab al-Owaisi with 70 other terrorists in violent clashes in the north of Babylon province,” 7/13/14
- “A military source: the fall of Jurf al-Sakhr of Babil province to Daash terrorists,” 4/15/14
- “Open the road between Jurf al-Sakhr and Musayyib after killing more than 115 Daash,” 7/28/14
- “The outbreak of violent clashes in Latifiiyah and Yusufiyah between the security forces and the terrorist rats Daash,” 7/27/14
- “Sons of Iraq clearing the last stronghold of terrorism in Latifiya of Daash terrorists,” 7/17/14
- “The start of a major military operation in Jurf al-Sakhr,” 8/3/14

Al Forat, “Babel Operations Command announces fully controlling Jurf al-Sakhar district,” 7/31/14
- “Babel: To escape from fighting; more than 800 families displace from Jurf al-Sakhar,” 5/18/14
- “Camp of ISIL destroyed in Jurf al-Sakher,” 6/15/14
- “Dozens of citizens demonstrate in Babel due to deterioration of security situation,” 3/29/14
- “ISF carry out wide security operation in Jurf al-Sakher,” 9/20/14
- “Terrorists of ISIL defeated in Jurf al-Sakher,” 8/17/14
- “Wide-scale security operation starts in north of Babel,” 4/15/14
- “Wide security operation conducted in northern Babel,” 1/7/14

Georgy, Michael and Rasheed, Ahmed, “Tunneling through triangle of death, Islamic State aims at Baghdad from south,” Reuters, 8/4/14

Independent Press Agency, “Army dominates most areas of North Babylon, kills dozens of Daash,” 7/23/14

Al Mada, “Announces the remove of “Daash” ground forces from the vicinity of Baghdad and is seeking to take control of the helm of Fallujah,” 5/12/14
- “Babylon Council enhances the security forces in Jurf al Sakhr with 500 volunteers,” 7/12/14
- “Babylon demanding Maliki urgent stop the deterioration of security in Jurf al-Sakhr,” 5/7/14
- “Babylon launches a second operation to clear its north and stresses “we launched 300 rockets,” 5/15/14
- “Defense decided to form a higher committee to visit North Babylon and meet the demands of the military,” 5/7/14
- “Governor of Babylon denies insurgents control Jurf al-Sakhr: proactive operations against insurgent pockets,” 7/8/14
- “Jurf al-Sakhr receives 700 displaced families after the start of military operations in the peripheries,” 5/19/14
- “Launching a massive military operation to encircle and cleanse the area north of Babylon in Fadiliyah,” 9/16/14
- “Three kilometers shunned by soldiers and Daash to keep them in northern Babylon,” 9/17/14

Al Masalah, “The displacement of 84 families and 10 houses bombed north of Babylon,” 12/31/13

National Iraqi News Agency, “/9/ Gunmen killed ,/15/ others arrested in different operations in northern Babylon,” 5/27/14
- “/34/ Elements of the IS killed and wounded in military operation in Jurf al-Sakhar,” 9/13/14
- “1,500 volunteers to fight alongside the security forces, sent to the north of Babylon,” 6/18/14
- “Army makes significant progress in north of Babylon area,” 6/2/14
- “Babylon Police Chief announces liberating most of Jurf al-Sakhar areas from the militants,” 5/18/14
- “Maliki changes the Babylon Operations Commander,” 7/1/14
- “A wide security operation started to hunt down the remnants of the IS elements north of Babylon,” 8/1/14

New Sabah, “Purge Fadhiliya North Babylon and control over the desert road between Jurf al-Sakhr and Fallujah,” 9/19/14

Radio Nawa, “Daash militants deployed again in Jurf al-Sakhr, three days after their expulsion,” 7/26/14

Al Rafidayn, “Police Babylon: clearing areas stretching between Musayyib and Jurf al-Sakhr of Daash,” 5/11/14

Al Rayy, “8 killed, including Daash of Moroccan nationality pounding them in Jurf al-Sakhr,” 5/16/14
- “17th Army Brigade announces the cleansing of Latifiyah fully of Daash terrorists,” 6/26/14
- “Popular Battalions with the support of the security forces cleansed area of Fadhiliya in Yusifiya of terrorists,” 9/5/14
- “A security source: Daash controlled area in Jurf al-Sakhr and 25 families abandon area,” 4/5/14

Shafaq News, “Tank battalion on its way to northern Babel to free it from ISIL,” 7/6/14

Saturday, September 20, 2014

Musings On Iraq In The News


Thursday, September 18, 2014

Government Shelling Of Civilian Areas In Iraq Continues Despite Premier Abadi’s Pledge Not To

 
On September 13, 2014 new Prime Minister Haider Abadi ordered the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) to stop the shelling of civilian populations in urban areas. This had been an on going complaint by civilians, politicians and human rights groups with hundreds of people having been killed and wounded by artillery, mortar and missile strikes in several different provinces. Despite the announcement there have been three days straight of civilian casualties in Anbar due to government shelling.

The ISF has been hitting civilian areas for months now. The insurgent uprising in Anbar started at the very end of December 2013. Within a few days there were the first reports of civilian casualties in the province’s cities due to ISF shelling and bombing. January 3 6 were killed and 87 wounded by mortar fire on eastern Fallujah. The next day the city was hit by air strikes, mortar and artillery fire resulting in 47 people being injured. At the same time, ISF mortars hit Ramadi killing one and wounding 7. By the end of the month 85 people were dead and 446 wounded in Anbar by what became more and more indiscriminate fire. This was a leading cause for mass displacement within the governorate. Since then these types of attacks occur almost every day in the province. When the militant summer offensive began these government strikes were expanded to Ninewa, Salahaddin, Diyala and Kirkuk. Sunni politicians and human rights groups have complained about these attacks for the huge human costs. Militarily the shelling and bombardment have had no visible affect upon the insurgency. The vast majority of incidents appeared to be simply firing into insurgent held territory with little regard for who or what is hit.

Premier Abadi’s order to the ISF was an attempt to appease the Sunni population and politicians, but it has not been followed through with. From September 15 to 17 there has been daily shelling of Fallujah. September 15 6 people died and 22 were wounded. September 16 another 4 were killed and 21 injured, followed by 3 fatalities and 20 wounded the next day. The new prime minister knows that he has to win over disaffected Sunnis if he hopes to turn around the security situation. His announcement about shelling civilian areas therefore, was an early concession to show that his government would not be the same as the previous one. Unfortunately the Iraqi forces have not gotten the order.

A concession is only a concession if it is followed through with. Premier Abadi’s order to stop hitting civilian populations was a necessary one. There is no military value gained from the tactic, and the costs have been huge. The ISF however has not stopped the shelling of Fallujah. The fact that this happened three days straight pointed to this not being some kind of mistake. The ISF also denied hitting Fallujah hospital the day after Abadi’s pledge showing that they know about his pronouncement. This is not a good start to the new Iraqi government as the prime minister has so many challenges in front of him with seemingly so little time to achieve them. As commander and chief he has the authority to stop the practice of targeting civilian areas meaning his announcement was just for show, it has not gotten through the chain of command or he’s not being followed. It would seem that the premier’s words were for propaganda purposes. That needs to change if Abadi is going to make any kind of mark in the country.

SOURCES

Ali, Ahmed, "Iraq Update #42: Al Qaeda in Iraq Patrols Fallujah; Aims for Ramadi, Mosul, Baghdad," Institute for the Study of War, 1/5/14

Alsumaria, "Fallujah Hospital announces receiving 28 dead and wounded in renewed shelling of the city," 9/15/14

BBC, “Residents flee occupied Fallujah amid army bombardment,” 1/5/14

Coles, Isabel, “Bewildered Falluja residents flee feared Iraq army assault,” Reuters, 1/10/14

Al Mada, "Killing and wounding 23 civilians in bombing of the army on Fallujah," 9/17/14

National Iraqi News Agency, "9 Civilians wounded in bombing Falluja," 1/4/14
- "/25/ people killed and wounded in Fallujah," 9/16/14
- "Civilian killed, 7 wounded in shells fall in Ramadi," 1/4/14
- “Displacement of Hundreds of Families Continued in Fallujah as a result of shelling,” 1/21/14

Reuters, "Iraqi army shells Falluja to try to dislodge militants," 1/4/14

Xinhua, “Iraq PM orders halt of shelling populated areas in fight with IS,” 9/13/14

Yacoub, Sameer, “UN: More than 140,000 Iraqis flee Anbar violence,” Associated Press, 1/24/14

Wednesday, September 17, 2014

Islamic State Mass Executions In Northern Iraq Since Summer Offensive Started


The brutality of the Islamic State’s (IS) rule was well known from its control of parts of northern Syria. There are pictures on the Internet of the group beheading people, crucifying them, and shooting their opponents in that country. Now that it has conquered territory in Kirkuk, Ninewa, and Salahaddin IS has brought its violent form of governance to Iraq. There are growing reports of executions of members of the security forces (ISF), Turkmen, Yazidis, those that refuse to pledge allegiance to it, and those found guilty in its sharia courts. There are more and more reports coming out of these mass killings, and the group is far from over.

Bodies discovered in a mass grave in Sulaiman Bek, Salahaddin Sep 5, 2014 (EFE/EPA)

In June the Islamic State took Mosul and then moved south into Salahaddin. Immediately afterward the first stories of mass executions appeared. The first was in the Tikrit area involving soldiers captured at Camp Speicher. IS claimed that it killed 1,700 of them from June 11-14. The murders were video taped, photographed and extensively spread through social media by the organization to brag about its victory over the Iraqi government. It’s not clear whether that many were actually killed, but Human Rights Watch has estimated at least 770 died there in several different locations around the city. That was just the beginning. Three days later IS executed 25 soldiers it captured outside of Samarra. On June 21 84 members of the ISF and government workers were murdered in Tikrit, and then seven more soldiers in Shirqat on June 26. In August another 200 bodies of students were discovered in Camp Speicher after the area had been cleared by the ISF. Then in September when Sulaiman Bek in eastern Salahaddin was freed from the Islamic State a series of mass graves were discovered with a total of 89 bodies in them. So far there have been at least 1,411 killed by IS in Salahaddin.

Islamic State Executions In Salahaddin Jun-Sep 2014
Date
Location
Dead
Jun 11-14
Tikrit
770 Soldiers
Jun 17
Outside Samarra
25 Soldiers
Jun 21
Tikrit
84 ISF & Govt workers
Jun 26
Shirqat
7 Soldiers
Jul 9
Azwip
15
Jul 16
Tikrit
5
Jul 17
Tikrit
5
Jul 19
Shirqat
1 Police
Jul 25
South of Tikrit
6 Sahwa

Abbasid
18 Police
Jul 31
Shirqat
17
Aug 2
Shirqat
14 Police

Tikrit
1 Police
Aug 7
Tikrit
3
Aug 8
Baiji
7
Aug 9
Camp Speicher
200
Aug 14
Tikrit
12
Aug 18
Albu Jwari
1 Sahwa
Aug 23
Awija
6 Soldiers

Hegeel
1 Police
Aug 26
Shirqat
15
Aug 28
Shirqat
15 Sahwa
Sep 3
Baiji
60

Sulaiman Bek
24
Sep 5
Amerli
24

Sulaiman Bek
35
Sep 11
Sulaiman Bek
30
Sep 12
Jumash
1
Sep 13
Jumash
8
Sep 15
Shirqat
1
Total
-
1,411

Northern Ninewa was the first part of Iraq to fall to the Islamic State and has seen its own share of massacres. Right after the fall of Mosul 12 clerics were murdered on June 14. There have been a steady flow of people executed in Mosul and the surrounding area since then for people who refused to pledge allegiance to the IS or were found guilty for breaking its rules or were members of the security forces. More deaths were reported after the fall of the Sinjar area on August 3. That day the Islamic State killed 250 Yazidis in Sinjar, Solagh, Qiniyah, and Qahtanya in part of its organized campaign to wipe out the religious group. August 5 another 300 Yazidis died in Sinjar, and then 90 more in Kojo when that town was taken on August 15. Recently 500 bodies were found of prisoners from Badush prison outside of Mosul on September 10, and 30 were shot in Tal Afar on September 14. In total, there have been 1,426 deaths in Ninewa connected to IS executions since June.

Islamic State Executions In Ninewa Jun-Sep 2014
Date
Location
Dead
Jun 14
Mosul
12 clerics
Jun 20
Kokjla
2 Shabaks
Jan 30
Shura
6 Police
Jul 2
Shura
4 Police
Jul 3
Mosul
9
Jul 14
Kokjla
10
Jul 27
Mosul
5
Aug 3
Sinjar
80 Yazidis

Solagh
20 Yazidis

Qiniyah
90 Yazidis

Qahtanya
60 Yazidis
Aug 5
Sinjar
300 Yazidis
Aug 15
Kojo
90 Yazidis
Aug 26
Mosul
5
Aug 28
Mosul
7
Sep 1
Sinjar
15 Yazidis
Sep 2
Mosul
7
Sep 4
Mosul
15
Sep 5
Mosul
3
Sep 6
Mosul
5
Sep 7
Mosul
46
Sep 8
Mosul
31

Wadi Hajar
2 Police
Sep 10
?
31 Police

Humaidiyat
500 Badush prisoners

Barzak
35 Yazidis
Sep 11
Mosul
2
Sep 13
Mosul
1
Sep 14
Tal Afar
30
Sep 15
Mosul
3
Total
-
1,425

Western Kirkuk was taken after the fall of Mosul in June and has seen the fewest mass killings so far. Most of the victims have been Turkmen with 55 killed on June 24 and July 3 in Bashir. Several Sahwa and others have been shot as well for a total of 116 since June 23.

Islamic State Executions In Kirkuk Jun-Sep 2014
Date
Location
Dead
Jun 23
Taza
40
Jun 24
Bashir
15 Turkmen
Jun 25
Hawija
4 Sahwa
Jul 3
Bashir
40 Turkmen
Jul 22
Copalh
7
Aug 26
Abbasi
3 Sahwa
Sep 11
Riyad
3
Sep 14
Zab
4
Total
-
116

How the Islamic State plans to rule is revealed in these mass killings. The true cost of their conquering of northern Iraq will not be known until it is expelled from the area. The 2,952 people who have been reported killed in the press and by human rights groups is undoubtedly only a fraction of those that have lost their lives so far. IS is determined to wipe out those that do not agree with it or who do not fit its vision of the Caliphate, which will lead it to more of these massacres in the future.

SOURCES

AIN, "5 corpses discovered in Tikrit," 7/16/14

Alsumaria, "Daash executed two policemen in center and south of Mosul," 9/8/14
- "Found a mass grave containing the remains of 30 bodies east of Tikrit," 9/11/14
- "Found the bodies of six soldiers were killed by firing squad south of Tikrit," 8/23/14

Amnesty International, "Ethnic Cleansing On A Historic Scale: Islamic State's Systematic Targeting of Minorities In Northern Iraq, 9/2/14

Buratha News, "7 bodies found of police officers kidnapped by Daash terrorists north of Tikrit," 8/8/14
- "200 bodies found near Base Speicher believed to be students killed by Daash gang," 8/9/14
- "After the expulsion of Daash rates found 25 bodies, mostly soldiers who have died by firing squad, west of country," 6/17/14
- "The bodies of the martyrs lying on the roads of Bashir by Daash," 7/3/14
- "Daash delivers to the forensic medicine in Mosul 30 bodies including senior officers executed within a week," 9/8/14
- "Daash executed 7 civilian residents of Mosul," 9/2/14
- "Daash gang executes 17 citizens of Sharqat," 7/31/14
- "Daash terrorist gang execute five people after torturing them in the streets of Tikrit," 7/17/14
- "Daash terrorist gang executes 30 people including one tribal leader in Tal Afar,
west of Mosul," 9/14/14
- "Daash terrorists executed 40 people including children shot dead in Mosul," 9/7/14
- "Daash threaten the population of Mosul flogging 80 times for each and executed 12 clerics who refused to pledge allegiance in Mosul," 6/14/14
- "Found 60 bodies from Baiji north of Tikrit," 9/3/14
- "Found a grave containing the bodies of 15 of Awakening abducted by Daash north of Tikrit," 8/28/14

Dolamari, Mewan, "500 Bodies Found in IS Mass Grave in Northern Iraq," 9/10/14

eKurd, "After Peshmerga pullout,hundreds of missing Iraqi Kurdish Yazidis feared dead," 8/4/14

Al Forat, "3 unveiled women executed by ISIL northern Tikrit," 8/7/14
- "6 Corpses belong to IP discovered in Mosul," 6/30/14
- "14 Intelligence officers executed by ISIL in Shurqat," 8/2/14
- “ISIL executes 3 western Kirkuk,” 9/14/14
- "ISIL executes woman, throws her body in Tigris River," 9/4/14
- "ISIS terrorist gangs execute 4 policemen in southern Mosul," 7/2/14
- "ISIL terrorists execute kidnapped officer in northern Tikrit," 8/2/14
- "ISIS terrorists execute police colonel in Shurqat," 7/19/14
- "Policeman slaughtered in front of his family in Tikrit," 8/23/14

Hauslohner, Abigail, "Shiite villagers describe 'massacre in northern Iraq," Washington Post, 6/23/14

Human Rights Watch, "Islamic State Executions in Tikrit," 9/3/14

Independent Press Agency, "Daash executed 5 because of their opposition to the demolition of shrines," 7/27/14

Iraq Times, "Daash displaces Kurds and Shiites and execute ten of them in Sinjar," 8/3/14

Jaffe, Greg, "In Amerli, an unusual alliance defeated Islamic radicals. Don't count on that lasting," Washington Post, 9/5/14

Kirkuk Now, "15 Bodies are Buried in Taza," 6/24/14

Al Mada, "Found the bodies of 15 executed elements of the security forces by Daash east of Tikrit," 8/26/14
- "Peshmerga announces finding the bodies of seven drivers who were kidnapped by Daash and delivered them to their relatives," 7/22/14
- "Six bodies found of elements of the Awakening south of Tikrit," 7/25/14

Mamuzini, Hazhar, "IS Militants Behead Five Fortunetellers in Mosul," Bas News, 9/6/14

Al Masalah, "Daash kidnap 20 citizens near Mosul," 6/20/14
- "Found 10 bodies west of Mosul," 7/14/14

NINA, "/9/ unidentified bodies found with signs of torture in Mosul," 7/3/14
- "/12/ Bodies of people kidnapped by the IS found in Tikrit," 8/14/14
- "/35/ Bodies found in Sulaiman Bek district south of Kirkuk," 9/5/14
- "The bodies of 18 members of policemen found south of Tikrit," 7/25/14
- "Daash gangs execute one of Sahwa forces commander in Salahuddin," 8/18/14
- "Daash kidnaps 20 members of the former Sahwa forces west of Kirkuk," 9/11/14
- "The IS executed three young men in Mosul, for unknown reasons," 9/15/14
- "ISIS executes four members of the awakening of Hawija, west of Kirkuk," 6/25/14
- "Islamic State executed 14 civilians in Mosul," 9/4/14
- “Islamic State executes an engineer in Kirkuk,” 9/14/14
- "The Islamic State executed five men in Mosul," 8/26/14
- "Islamic State executes 31 police officers in Nineveh refused to cooperate with them," 9/10/14
- "The Islamic State executes three women in Mosul," 9/5/14

Nordland, Rod, "As Fighting Spreads Through Iraq, Sunni Allies Turn on One Another," New York Times, 6/21/14

Osgood, Patrick and Tahir, Rawaz, "Iraq's Yezidi minority faces massacre," Iraq Oil Report, 8/6/14

Radio Nawa, "Daash executed two women residents of Mosul," 9/11/14

Al Rayy, "Daash executed seven soldiers southwest of Kirkuk," 6/26/14
- "Daash executed six people including former candidate in Mosul," 9/7/14
- "Daash executes seven civilians from the people of Mosul, the second such incident within 24 hours," 8/28/14
- "Daash executes three members of the tribal council in Mentved west of Kirkuk," 8/26/14
- "Daash gangs execute 15 people in northern Salahuddin," 7/9/14

Reuters, “Islamic State executes eight Sunnis in northern Iraq,” 9/14/14

Saad, Mustafa, "Mass grave found east of Tikrit," Alsumaria, 9/3/14

Shafaq News, "ISIS kills 15 Yazidi elders by blowing a shrine in Sinjar," 9/1/14